Epidemiological Analysis Of Hepatitis C

Historical perspective of hepatitis C

According to the National Center for Health Statistics (2006) Hepatitis C (HCV) is the most common chronic blood viral infection burden in the United States; about three times as many people are infected with hepatitis C and are infected with HIV. a national survey (the third national health examination survey and nutrition [NHANES III]) of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population revealed that 1.8 percent US citizen (3.9 million) have been infected with HCV, the majority (2.7 million) are chronically infected with HCV (National Center for Health Statistics, 2006). While new infections are steadily declining, the prevalence of liver disease caused by HCV is still rising due to the lapse of time between the onset of infection and clinical manifestations.

Hepatitis C can be the deadliest disease ever heard.

Infection risk factors

Hepatitis C can not be transmitted, for example, hugging, shaking hands, or sharing cups or utensils. The people most at risk of HCV transmission are users intravenously, people with a history of tattooing or piercing, cocaine users or sexual partners of HCV patients in the long term, or positive, even people with a history of multiple sexual partners. Although the risk of HCV sexual transmission is low, sex is a common behavior in the general population, which can increase the risk of

According to the National Center for Health Statistics (2006) before the mid-1980s, there was a 7 percent to 10 percent risk of hepatitis C from blood transfusion. In 1990, the selection of specific donors HCV was implemented in 1992 and the risk of HCV infection of a blood unit transfused was decreased to one per 100,000. Since 2001, the risk of HCV infection from a blood transfusion unit is less than one per million units transfused (National Center for Health Statistics, 2006).

Other risk factors which are associated with infection with HCV; coagulation factor concentrate, which are derived from plasma products used to treat people with hemophilia, employment in the health sector, and the birth of a mother infected with HCV. The use of viral inactivation procedures has reduced the risk of HCV transmission through blood products. Treatment of hepatitis C.

The treatment of choice for infected patients is paged combination of interferon and ribavirin.

Implications monitoring

The National Center for Health Statistics (2006) suggests vigilance is essential to determine the effectiveness of national, state, and local efforts to prevent hepatitis C. But hepatitis C surveillance is complicated by the absence of a laboratory test that can distinguish infections acquired infections recently acquired in the past. Although acute hepatitis (clinical disease) is reported in all States, only a few states conduct surveillance of acute hepatitis C cases to monitor the incidence of the disease. However, about 30 states have positive laboratory test reporting requirements HCV, most of which represent people with chronic HCV infection or resolved (National Center for Health Statistics, 2006). NHANES III identified the high prevalence of HCV infection in the US. Intensive sentinel surveillance conducted in 6 counties is another surveillance by the CDC for chronic liver disease to determine the trends of chronic hepatitis C. The estimates of the incidence of HCV infection depend mainly on data from the Sentinel study counties. epidemiologically potential aid monitoring program to improve understanding of the natural history of HCV infection, monitor national trends in chronic hepatitis C, and provide estimates of the contribution of infection HCV chronic liver disease in the United States. HCV surveillance ultimately used to continuously monitor the conditions that increase the risk of transmission.

Morbidity of hepatitis C

According to the National Association of County and municipal officials (2006), currently, an estimated four million US citizens infected with hepatitis C (HCV) 8-10000 who die each year from the disease. The dilemma for health professionals is obvious because of the lack of rapid disease progression and association with liver disease is clinically very difficult to manage the disease and prevent infection. The Center for Disease Control (2006) indicates about 15 percent to 25 percent of people with acute infection of hepatitis C without solving their other problems. The rest of developing chronic infection and about 60 percent to 70 percent of these individuals develop chronic hepatitis. Liver cirrhosis develops in 10 percent to 20 percent of people with chronic hepatitis C for a period of 20-30 years, and hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer) at 1 percent to 5 percent (Center for Disease control, 2006).

he impact of HCV in health care organizations and providers

HCV is a problem for health care organizations and service providers. It is almost a stealth disease and track HCV incidence is almost impossible. There is no clinical markers or reliable laboratory for HCV infection. The Center for Disease Control (2006) indicates symptoms are missing or non-specific in at least 80% of newly infected patients, HCV antibody appears only months after exposure, and chronic liver disease in HCV develops insidiously and take decades to show (Center for Disease Control, 2006).

In response to this lack of federal funding, a number of national and local health services have funded test projects hepatitis C (Center for Disease Control, 2006) and consulting. Because there is not enough funding and experts to take care of all people infected with HCV, much of the care of these patients will move to primary health care providers. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (2006) when a patient is diagnosed with chronic HCV infection, the primary health care provider is involved in the early stages of adviser to diagnostic tests and screening and even vaccination. Primary care providers must have the ability to track, diagnose and care for HCV infected patient or be able to refer patients to a specialist.


The questions that most vendors are responding to treatment strategies and planning for HCV; how to identify risk groups? Applying epidemiological data to assess the trend of HCV is critical in developing strategies for health organizations. The knowledge that is acquired by the current epidemiological concepts can be used by health care organizations to implement prevention plans for people who are affected and infected by HCV.

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