Influences on Face Recognition

O'Toole, Deffenbacher, Valentine, and Abdi (1994) analyzed several factors that influence facial recognition. Typicality, one of these factors relates to a face similarity is a prototypic side. A prototypical face is a homogeneous mixture or typical characteristics which are "normal". A prototypical face is a conceptual tool used to describe similar characteristics. intertwined faces, the concept of mixing Face prototype of an individual with the characteristics of this prototype, while unusual features or non-prototypical faces tend to "stand out" in memory.

The faces are kept in a way that improves the prototypical facial characteristics. Thus, a sample is coded for recognition. Precision in recognition occurs when the different facial retail copy. The faces that are considered unusual are considered more familiar faces than typical. For example, glasses, facial hair, a scar face or tattoo would be to create a specific memory that could be easily remembered. Lewis and Johnson (1997) found that the distinctive character of an error predicted face missing, the inability to identify a face as seen above, while the familiarity of a face predicts false positive, identifying a face as seen above what was new. Facial attractiveness and memory are linked (Vokey and Read, 1992 ;. O'Toole, et al). In addition, pleasant or neutral judged faces are easier to recognize that faces judged unpleasant.

Attractiveness is related to typicality or homogeneity faces. There is a negative correlation between the attractiveness of the face and memorization. Less attractive faces are easier to remember because they deviate from typical, and are more distinctive than the attractive faces. Attractiveness is positively correlated with the typicality. The distinctiveness of the face can be affected both locally (eg scars) and the world (eg, unusual facial proportions) compared to the attractiveness of the face.
In addition, different races are different aspects of the attractive face. Company / cosmetic suggestions, such as plucked eyebrows or combed affected Japanese sexual recognition against Caucasians. Japanese women tend to pluck your eyebrows stronger than white women, which is an identification suggestion race and gender. O'Toole, and. al also found that men and women use different indices to identify the sex of a different face.
Female rate female faces as more typical than male faces. However, nominal familiar faces were not related to the recognition of judgments. This suggests that out of context familiarity judgment is not the source of the effects of typicality in face recognition.

A problem in facial recognition is whether the facial features have a role in the recognition. Experimentation with basic characteristics (eg, hair, shape, age) showed that the individual characteristics but important for recognition, are not weighted individually for re-cognition. Despite the preference was shown for these areas, the subsequent recognition test strongly argued against recognition of the resource lists. By changing the spatial location of the eyes, it was found that the recognition of the subject's face is altered, which further emphasizes the holistic representation of the face model.

Hair face greater resources and the eyes were better recognized by the subjects of the characteristics of small face of the nose, chin and mouth. Using composite images (photos where one or more modified features) changes in the upper area of ​​face recognition significantly affected the changes in the lower area. Participants in this study were less likely to recognize faces or old faces compounds and examine again.

The recognition of the happy expression took less time than the recognition of anger expressions of the same face. Confident facial expression recognition leads 100-250 milliseconds. Facial recognition was significantly better than the expressional recognition. However, individuals were better in recognizing the more happy faces than neutral faces. Expression and facial expression appears to be independent of identity. However, expression and mood delays can affect the recognition.
Stereotypes and prejudices can affect recognition capability.
Gender stereotypes and comments were also found to be a recognition factor. They found an interaction between face recognition and stereotyped kind of words presented to the subjects. Context of face memory hinder demonstrated this type (Toole, et. Al). People tend to associate a face with other elements in the environment, such as haircuts, clothing, location or time of day. The memory is impaired because the face tends to be seen "blocks" with their environment. The face is encoded with other information in your environment, so that the hair, location or clothing becomes part of the memory of that face. When fragmented, the face of the memory depends on whether the face is seen in the same or similar.
Dissimilar suspects were properly rejected in missing the target queue, even when dressed in the same clothes as the author.

Recognizing faces and expressions. Familiarity and false positives in face recognition.
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Structural aspects of face recognition and the effect of another race. Memory & Cognition, 22, 208-224.
Oda, R. (1997). Facial recognition biased in the prisoner's dilemma game. Evolution and Human Behavior, 18, 309-315.
Familiarity, memorization, and the effect of typicality in face recognition. Memory & Cognition, 20, 291-302.

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