Fabric finishing ~ After weaving, the fabrics are subjected to finishing process. This changes touch, appearance and durability of the fabric. There are literally hundreds of finish of the fabric can pass. Many tissues must be softened, clean and ready to accept dyes or printing.
Cotton fabrics are preshrunk and mercerized. When a fabric is mercerized, the fibers are reinforced, made clearer and receptive to dyes.
The wool can be cut and singed to remove fuzz and fiber surface. Through rollers can change the pattern or surface brightness of a screen. This process is called calendering. This process is used to make glossy or polished cotton and produce cut surfaces such as chamois or flannel. Calendaring can create reflective or wavy patterns (eg Moir) in ribbed fabric. Silks and nylon embossed patterns in three dimensions.
Other finishing processes to confer resistance to environmental influences that reduce the useful life of the upholstery.
Fiber manufacturers may apply additional treatments for a variety of reasons. Antistatic finishes reduce soiling caused by static build-up in the tissues.
Inhibitors of molds and bacteria helps to prevent soil and odors created by microorganisms.
Flame retardants to slow the spread of fire and stops burning when the flame is removed.
Smoked-fading resistant finishes prevent loss of color in some fabrics and dyes caused by air pollutants.
Moth proofing treatments stop the damage that butterflies are for protein fibers. Water repellent finishes to bring the son to repel water while leaving the fibers remain porous. This avoids a sagging that can cause water retention, retaining the soil on the fabric surface.
Dyes and prints on fabric
Fabrics reach their color and design of several different methods of dying or printing. The method of death or printing, directly affects how a fabric will hold its color, and the method and the results of each reach.
Earlier in this book, the different fibers and each fabric cleaning methods were discussed. The way a fabric is dyed or printed can change both the cleaning method and expected results. Some colors are added to the fiber prior to weaving, some are added after weaving. The dyes that are added before weaving tends to be more durable with better cleaning results. When dyes are added after weaving, they tend to stay only on the surface. These dyes are generally known dyes silk screened.
REMINDER: The way a fabric is finished or stained, directly affects how the fabric will meet your needs.
The dyes that are applied after weaving are very easy to identify. This loss of color may result from use as well. These types of dyes are not very resistant to abrasion. Premature wear fabric is likely to occur.
Dyes which are applied before the weaving process are called skein solution or VAT complexion.
Fabric substrates vary in type and thickness. The support is determined by the fabric and fabric type. For the purpose of lining fabric is to stabilize the fabric.
This fabric, a mixture of cotton and polyester above, is closely woven and does not need additional support for additional support. This type of fabric retains its shape and dimensions remain relatively stable.
The fabric is tightly woven least greater support becomes.
Most tissue holders are manufactured by applying the latex on the opposite side of the fabric. When a fabric is thick strands (example: Cotton Haiti), more latex is required. Latex is soft and flexible and does not alter or touch the texture of the fabric.
When the latex is applied to a fabric, the cleaning process is changed. The fabric above (linen and cotton) is the best solvent to dry. However, because the latex backing, latex solvent dissolves the only safe method is dry foam shampoo.
You will see the fabric support and the method used to dye the fabric.