Spread across the territory of Brazilian lands, Venezuela, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana and Suriname, an area of 5.5 million square kilometers of housing (2,123,562 square miles), the tropical forest In the world, with many animal species ~ POS = TRUNC and some not yet discovered. Orellana originates the name Amazonas from the ancient Amazons of Asia and Africa by Herodotus and Diodorus is described in Greek myths.
The rain forest has been formed during the Iocene. It has become a total reduction in tropical temperatures has, when the Atlantic hot expanded to provide humid climate of the Amazon Basin are available. When the climate became more dry, widespread Savannah.
The disappearance of the dinosaurs and the most humid climate, the rainforest rainforest spread across the continent to have the potential. From 65 to 34 Mya, the rainforest extended south to 45 degrees. In the middle of Eozän, it is considered that the Amazon River basin in the middle of the continent was separated from the Purgo Arch. The water flowed to the eastern side of the Atlantic, while water flows from the west to the Pacific Ocean via the Amazon basin. There are indications that (LGM) and then defrosting material changes in the Amazon forest vegetation for the last 21 thousand years through the last glacial maximum. Analyzes of deposition materials from paleolakes show the Amazon Basin and the Amazon fans who made rainfall in the basin during the LGM were lower than today, and it was almost certain that wet tropical vegetation associated decreases in the basin . Some scientists argue that the rainforest was very small, isolated shelters from open woodlands and other scientists reduced separately claim that the rainforest remained largely intact, but expanded less far to the north, south and east, as it appears today. This proved to be difficult to resolve, because the practical limitations of working in rain forest data sampling mean distracting from Amazon basin means, both explanations are reasonable and not supported by the available data.Prior On the basis of archaeological data from the excavation at Caverna da Pedra Pintada, human inhabitants first settled in the Amazon region for at least 11,200 years. Subsequent growth led to slow prehistoric settlements along the forest edge in 1250, changes in the forest cover are being induced. It has long been considered that these people Inner populations were sparse hunter-gatherers. One of the most important elements for the existence of fertile black soil (black earth), which is distributed over much of the Amazon rainforest. Among them was evidence of roads, bridges and large squares.
As we all know, the Amazon Rainforest is extremely rich in flora and fauna. Giant leaf frog, birds, like Scarlet moth and up to 2.5 million species of insects: Treat with its wildlife, you can enjoy many varieties of indigenous and native species of frogs found for example. It is home to 40,000 species of plants, fish 3,000, 1,294 birds, mammals, 427, 428 and 378 amphibian reptiles. Scientists have 96,660 to 128,843 invertebrate species in Brazil alone described.
One square kilometer (247 acres) of the Amazon rain forest can contain about 90,790 tonnes of live plants. The area of green leaves of plants and trees in the forest ranges from about 25% due to seasonal changes. For the larger predatory creatures are the black kiman, jaguar, puma and charon. Several types of poison dart frog species excrete toxins of lipophilic alkaloids through their flesh. Vampire bats live in the tropical forest and the spread of rabies virus. Malaria, yellow fever and dengue fever can be concluded in the Amazon region.Farmers near Amazon are used to grow through the forest area to manipulate. Since the content of nutrients in the forest floor is surprisingly low (ie, because the Amazon forest a highly active ecosystem and gross primary productivity is high) continue to move to cultivate deforestando area farmers. Between 1991 and 2000, the total area of the Amazon forest increased from 415,000 to 587,000 lost square kilometers (from 160,000 to 227,000 m2), with most of the lost forest for pasture cattle being. 70% of the former Amazon forest area, and 91% of the 1970s, are cleared for grazing livestock. In addition, Brazil is currently the second largest producer in the world of soy after the United States. The first two highways successfully opened the rainforest and led to an increase in the settlement and deforestation of the forests. Debt deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has declined significantly since 2004.
As a result of deforestation, environmentalists are afraid of losing biodiversity, as well as releasing carbon dioxide, which may eventually increase global warming. Amber Evergreen forests account for about 10% of terrestrial primary productivity and 10% of global carbon stocks in ecosystems by 1.1 x 1011 tonnes of carbon. It is estimated that Amazon forest has accumulated 0.62 ± 0.37 tonnes of carbon dioxide annually per hectare between 1975 and 1996. From 2002 to 2006 the rainforest Amazon rain forest has almost tripled and forest deforestation rates have fallen to 60%. About one million square kilometers (250 million acres) were placed in a conservation mode, corresponding to a current quantity of 1.73 million square kilometers (430 million acres).
The basin is drained by the Amazon, the world's largest river in terms of discharge and the second largest river in the world after the Nile. The river system is the forest survival board and its history, plays an important role in the development of the rainforest. Explore nature for agriculture, clothing and traditional medicine over 350 indigenous and ethnic groups in life for thousands of years of the Amazon. Although most live in large urban centers, all residents are still dependent on Amazon's ecosystem services for food, shelter, and livelihood. For the indigenous people of the Amazon rain forest is important because it is their home and culture closely with the forests, rivers and wildlife. If you have destroyed the forest, it will destroy all the indigenous peoples that are left behind. People have lived happily for thousands of years. Humanity will lose language, art, stories, and even your knowledge.
Destruction of the forest has led to many dangerous conditions not only affecting the forest, but every inch of the planet. As the largest tropical forest in the world, which absorbs most of the CO2 released into the atmosphere and a large catchment area, as well as water recycling, Amazon is our responsibility. Protect, preserve and sustain their use in every living matter on Earth thrive, including mankind.